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World War I (WWI) was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
It was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence
until the start of World War II in 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter.
It involved all the world's great powers, which were assembled in two opposing alliances:
the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom,
France and Russia)
and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Alliance of Germany,
Austria-Hungary and Italy;
but, as Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive
against the agreement, Italy did not enter into the war).
Imperial, territorial, and economic rivalries led to the “Great War” between the Central Powers (Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and Turkey) and the Allies (U.S., Britain, France, Russia, Belgium, Serbia, Greece, Romania, Montenegro, Portugal, Italy, and Japan).
About 10 million combatants killed, 20 million wounded.
1914 June 28
Austrian Archduke Francis Ferdinand and wife assassinated in Sarajevo by Serbian nationalist, Gavrilo Princip
1914 July 28
Austria declares war on Serbia
1914 Aug. 1
Germany declares war on Russia and France (Aug. 3)
1914 Aug. 4
Germany invades Belgium
1914 Aug. 4
Britain declares war on Germany
Germans defeat Russians in Battle of Tannenberg on Eastern Front
First Battle of the Marne
German drive stopped 25 miles from Paris. By end of year, war on the Western Front is “positional” in the trenches
German submarine blockade of Great Britain begins
1915 Dec.–Jan. 1916
Dardanelles Campaign-British land in Turkey (April), withdraw from Gallipoli
Germans use gas at second Battle of Ypres
1915 May 7
Lusitania sunk by German submarine-1,198 lost, including 128 Americans
1915 Sept. 6
On Eastern Front, German and Austrian 'great offensive' conquers all of Poland and Lithuania; Russians lose 1 million men
“Great Fall Offensive” by Allies results in little change from 1914
1915 Oct. 14
Britain and France declare war on Bulgaria
Battle of Verdun-Germans and French each lose about 350,000 men
Extended submarine warfare begins (March). British-German sea battle of Jutland (May); British lose more ships, but German fleet never ventures forth again. On Eastern Front, the Brusilov offensive demoralizes Russians, costs them 1 million men
Battle of the Somme-British lose over 400,000; French, 200,000; Germans, about 450,000; all with no strategic results
1916 Aug. 27
Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary
1917 April 6
U.S. declares war on Germany
Submarine warfare at peak
On Italian Front, Battle of Caporetto-Italians retreat, losing 600,000 prisoners and deserters
On Western Front, Battles of Arras, Champagne, Ypres (third battle), etc. First large British tank attack
1917 Dec. 7
U.S. declares war on Austria-Hungary
1917 Dec. 15
Armistice between new Russian Bolshevik government and Germans
Great offensive by Germans
Americans' first important battle role at Château-Thierry-as they and French stop German advance
Second Battle of the Marne
start of Allied offensive at Amiens, St. Mihiel, etc. Battles of the Argonne and Ypres panic German leadership
British offensive in Palestine
Germans ask for armistice
British armistice with Turkey
German Kaiser abdicates
1918 Nov. 11
Hostilities cease on Western Front
Adolf Hitler. World war I
Dazzle ships. Made around WW1 to confuse onlookers about the ships' direction, size, and general orientation.
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